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PUBLIC MARKS with tags "machine learning" & ai

2008

Conditional Random Fields

by ogrisel (via)
Conditional random fields (CRFs) are a probabilistic framework for labeling and segmenting structured data, such as sequences, trees and lattices. The underlying idea is that of defining a conditional probability distribution over label sequences given a particular observation sequence, rather than a joint distribution over both label and observation sequences. The primary advantage of CRFs over hidden Markov models is their conditional nature, resulting in the relaxation of the independence assumptions required by HMMs in order to ensure tractable inference. Additionally, CRFs avoid the label bias problem, a weakness exhibited by maximum entropy Markov models (MEMMs) and other conditional Markov models based on directed graphical models. CRFs outperform both MEMMs and HMMs on a number of real-world tasks in many fields, including bioinformatics, computational linguistics and speech recognition.

An Empirical Evaluation of Deep Architectures on Problems with Many Factors of Variation [PDF]

by ogrisel (via)
Recently, several learning algorithms relying on models with deep architectures have been proposed. Though they have demonstrated impressive performance, to date, they have only been evaluated on relatively simple problems such as digit recognition in a controlled environment, for which many machine learning algorithms already report reasonable results. Here, we present a series of experiments which indicate that these models show promise in solving harder learning problems that exhibit many factors of variation. These models are compared with well-established algorithms such as Support Vector Machines and single hidden-layer feed-forward neural networks.

YouTube - Visual Perception with Deep Learning

by ogrisel (via)
A long-term goal of Machine Learning research is to solve highly complex "intelligent" tasks, such as visual perception auditory perception, and language understanding. To reach that goal, the ML community must solve two problems: the Deep Learning Problem, and the Partition Function Problem. There is considerable theoretical and empirical evidence that complex tasks, such as invariant object recognition in vision, require "deep" architectures, composed of multiple layers of trainable non-linear modules. The Deep Learning Problem is related to the difficulty of training such deep architectures. Several methods have recently been proposed to train (or pre-train) deep architectures in an unsupervised fashion. Each layer of the deep architecture is composed of an encoder which computes a feature vector from the input, and a decoder which reconstructs the input from the features. A large number of such layers can be stacked and trained sequentially, thereby learning a deep hierarchy of features with increasing levels of abstraction. The training of each layer can be seen as shaping an energy landscape with low valleys around the training samples and high plateaus everywhere else. Forming these high plateaus constitute the so-called Partition Function problem. A particular class of methods for deep energy-based unsupervised learning will be described that solves the Partition Function problem by imposing sparsity constraints on the features. The method can learn multiple levels of sparse and overcomplete representations of data. When applied to natural image patches, the method produces hierarchies of filters similar to those found in the mammalian visual cortex. An application to category-level object recognition with invariance to pose and illumination will be described (with a live demo). Another application to vision-based navigation for off-road mobile robots will be described (with videos). The system autonomously learns to discriminate obstacles from traversable areas at long range.

YouTube - The Next Generation of Neural Networks

by ogrisel (via)
In the 1980's, new learning algorithms for neural networks promised to solve difficult classification tasks, like speech or object recognition, by learning many layers of non-linear features. The results were disappointing for two reasons: There was never enough labeled data to learn millions of complicated features and the learning was much too slow in deep neural networks with many layers of features. These problems can now be overcome by learning one layer of features at a time and by changing the goal of learning. Instead of trying to predict the labels, the learning algorithm tries to create a generative model that produces data which looks just like the unlabeled training data. These new neural networks outperform other machine learning methods when labeled data is scarce but unlabeled data is plentiful. An application to very fast document retrieval will be described.

2007

ICML 2007 - PRELIMINARY VIDEOS FROM THE SPOT

by ogrisel (via)
The 24th Annual International Conference on Machine Learning is being held in conjunction with the 2007 International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. As a broad subfield of artificial intelligence, machine learning is concerned with the design and development of algorithms and techniques that allow computers to "learn". At a general level, there are two types of learning: inductive, and deductive.

Elefant - What is Elefant

by ogrisel
Elefant (Efficient Learning, Large-scale Inference, and Optimisation Toolkit) is an open source library for machine learning Elefant include modules for many common optimisation problems arising in machine learning and inference. It is designed to be modular and easy to use. Framework provides easy to use python interface, which can be use for quick prototyping and testing inference algorithms.

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach

by ogrisel
The leading textbook in Artificial Intelligence. Used in over 1000 universities in 91 countries (over 90% market share). The 85th most cited publication on Citeseer.

2006

Learning Information Extraction Rules for Semi-structured and Free Text - Soderland (ResearchIndex)

by bcpbcp (via)
A wealth of on-line text information can be made available to automatic processing by information extraction (IE) systems. Each IE application needs a separate set of rules tuned to the domain and writing style. WHISK helps to overcome this knowledge-engineering bottleneck by learning text extraction rules automatically. WHISK is designed to handle text styles ranging from highly structured to free text, including text that is neither rigidly formatted nor composed of grammatical sentences....

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